The Infinite Pattern That Never Repeats

101 194 Weergaven 10 mln.

Simple rules of geometry meant that 5-fold symmetry was impossible as were crystals without a periodic structure. This turns out to be wrong. Thanks to LastPass for sponsoring a portion of this video. Click here to start using LastPass:
Huge thanks to Prof. Paul Steinhardt for the interview on this topic. Check out his book ‘The Second Kind of Impossible’
If you'd like to learn more about Penrose tilings, go check out "Penrose Tiles to Trapdoor Ciphers" by Martin Gardener, which helped my research for this video.
Filmed by Gene Nagata (Potato Jet on NLlike)
Animations by Iván Tello and Jonny Hyman
Editing, Coloring, Music & Audio mastering by Jonny Hyman
Prague scenes filmed in 2012.
Special thanks to Raquel Nuno for helping with the tilings!
Additional Music from Epidemic Sound


  1. Veritasium
    6 maanden geleden

    Roger Penrose was just awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics! Not for this pattern but “for the discovery that black hole formation is a robust prediction of the general theory of relativity”

    1. husejn179
      7 dagen geleden

    2. Yodas Raytraced Retro Studios
      Yodas Raytraced Retro Studios
      7 dagen geleden

      It never repeats but the universe itself clearly does. Ok.

    3. Itz_Clixzy
      11 dagen geleden

      That’s nice

    4. Big Smoke
      Big Smoke
      13 dagen geleden

      Wait, the astronasts select by Skill where also 1.6! It all has a pattern, but has actually Not🥴

    5. Shawn Hartmann
      Shawn Hartmann
      14 dagen geleden

      DUDE! I saw this pattern in a movie (can't remember the name of the movie, scene was near the end, two characters standing on a plaza with the Penrose pattern in the tile beneath them), and I searched for it for an embarrassing amount of time with no luck. Thank you, thank you, THANK YOU! for scratching this mental itch that has been in the back of my mind for months. Ahhhhhhhhhhh.........

  2. Holiest Ravioli
    Holiest Ravioli
    8 minuten geleden

    So, if any section of any Kites and Darts pattern can be matched to a section of a different one, how do we know that all the patterns of kites and darts are actually different patters? You said that the only way to tell the patterns apart would be to look at the entire pattern, which is physically impossible, so if we have no way to prove that the patterns are different, how do we know they are different?

  3. tigertank909
    2 uur geleden

    are you sure it never repeats i can see a hell of a lot of half and full cycles with in it

  4. VicVanProphet
    3 uur geleden

    i become smarter from each video im watching

  5. I'm batman
    I'm batman
    3 uur geleden

    I rarely understand even half of what he says even though he is a pretty good teacher.

  6. Alec
    4 uur geleden

    And now guys you know why in ancient Greece entire philisophies and cults were created based on geometry and math

  7. jan vandevelde
    jan vandevelde
    4 uur geleden

    ads every 3 minutes, youtube has become a greedy bastard

  8. Marius Braun
    Marius Braun
    4 uur geleden

    0:30 that lady at the door is like "wtf is going on here" lol

  9. Techi
    5 uur geleden

    Hey the bigger pattern around 9:50 Forms Cubes stacked next to each other. How cool is that? I find that realy cool. A micropattern that mostly 'repeats' until the borders of the Macropattern.

  10. Daniel Gray
    Daniel Gray
    5 uur geleden

    Sorry dude. You lost me when you thought it was cool to walk into a European museum wearing shorts and a t-shirt with a commercial slogan on the front. You forgot your baseball cap and great big American flag.

  11. Stephan Callon
    Stephan Callon
    5 uur geleden

    This channel and thus man is very inspiring

  12. Elif Göksu Algın
    Elif Göksu Algın
    7 uur geleden

    my mind is effectively blown

  13. 「CELLO KID」
    10 uur geleden


  14. Frances McCollum
    Frances McCollum
    11 uur geleden

    Go to 9:34. Mind blown!!!!

  15. Coolcoolguy65
    20 uur geleden

    math is weird...

  16. Mr. Han
    Mr. Han
    22 uur geleden

    I get why he has so much subscribers

  17. grodt88
    Dag geleden

    thumb down for commercial every 3 minutes

  18. MS Archive
    MS Archive
    Dag geleden

    What am I missing all the tiles look the same to me, he says they don't repeat and clearly they do.

  19. Poppy Palais
    Poppy Palais
    Dag geleden

    So that's how to pronounce moire.

  20. Propozitor
    Dag geleden

    Man looking at this amazing video and all the stuff about fibonacci sequence just makes me want to listen to Lateralus.

  21. marcello roos
    marcello roos
    Dag geleden

    So the greatest randomness van exist from 50""50""

  22. Allen Williamson
    Allen Williamson
    Dag geleden

    brb re-tiling my bathroom

  23. remconet
    Dag geleden

    16:15 you lost me there. I thought this was supposed to work any way possible

  24. Anym
    Dag geleden

    the thing is that we try to understand the world so much but in reality there is no understanding. like the quasicrystal, it seems to not abide by our arbitrary "laws" of nature, and yet it exists. nature doesn't have laws that it always follows and we should stop shutting down things like for instance a quasicrystal because we think we know it all

  25. Victor Huff
    Victor Huff
    Dag geleden

    0:51 They're the barriers that get put up around you when you get friend-zoned by someone.

  26. Victor Huff
    Victor Huff
    Dag geleden

    Wait...isn't a pattern supposed to repeat by definition of what makes a pattern?

  27. ian1856
    Dag geleden

    Allow me to state the (painfully!) obvious: You have an extraordinary mind! Love the videos; thank you.

  28. IncapableLP
    Dag geleden

    9:00 - Funny...i am sure he did not want to, but that moving pattern is a worst case scenario for video compression. You can see, how the quality dips down, as the algorithm struggles to keep the number of refreshed areas to a minimum, but the picture is just too much noise, to keep a good quality, at the given bitrate. As an (shortened) explanation for those who do not know: Modern video codecs obviously are trying to keep the size of a video-file down. One way they do this, is by cutting the image into tiles, which is funny, given the topic of this video. The algorithm then looks at these little pieces and compares the current frame with the next one. If a tile matches...or closely matches the one at the same position in the next frame, then only a reference to that tile is saved, which takes up less space. So one tile is then effectively used twice, because they didn’t change between frames. The more you compress a movie, the more it tries to find matching tiles and the „loser“ the rules for „What is matching?“ get. That also means, that the quality gets worse, because the tiles get matched with others, that aren‘t QUITE the same and at one point, our eyes notice. The desired file (to be exact the bitrate) size then dictates the number of original/true tiles can be saved, compared to just a reference. What does that mean in this context? Well 1, a compressing algorithm LOVES videos, that display the same thing, over and over again, because that means a lot of same-y tiles. And 2, the more the picture changes, the more original tiles must be saved. However we just established, that this number is finite. Not only is it finite, the algorithm has to spread each tile evenly, it cannot spend every tile in the first second, because then there is nothing left for the rest. That rate, in which the tiles are „spent“ is basically, what the bitrate is. Number 3: Knowing that, we also know, that the bitrate is also finite, which means, if the number of changed tiles per frame exceeds the number of tiles the algorithm can spend, it is forced to widen the rules (remember the size and bitrate cannot be increased), as described above, which leads to a blurry video, the higher that difference is. That noise he created CONSTANTLY changes and quickly spends our tile-budget and that is why it starts looking blurry. Why am i writing this? I have no goddamn clue, i just found it interesting!

  29. Drago Don
    Drago Don
    Dag geleden

    NOT INTRESTED NLlike get this outta ma face

  30. petfroggy dbm
    petfroggy dbm
    Dag geleden

    my bwain hurts qwq

  31. Jeremy Mettler
    Jeremy Mettler
    Dag geleden

    Wow you mean people guessed they knew amazing so they deceived self refuse correction refuse direction refuse truth Demand know can't explain don't understand yet try demand know arrogamt pathological liars I see true and just it's not pretty

  32. TerryTwoToes
    Dag geleden

    Haha I was just watching Tom Scott's video about paid promotions he was spot on

  33. ΩΜΣGΛ
    Dag geleden

    this is scary

  34. Modulo Algoritmo
    Modulo Algoritmo
    2 dagen geleden

    how boring, about to change position of track in 5, 4 , 3 .....

  35. Marc Scillieri
    Marc Scillieri
    2 dagen geleden

    Where did you get the two transparent sheets that you used to make the moire pattern?

  36. Eric Roschuni
    Eric Roschuni
    2 dagen geleden

    @1:31 DnD dice

  37. Emma Fissinger
    Emma Fissinger
    2 dagen geleden

    holy life metaphor... god, its got me wanting to trip xD

    1. Distran The Gloriously Deformed
      Distran The Gloriously Deformed
      20 uur geleden

      Always respect psychedelics.

  38. Lolechi
    2 dagen geleden

    The perfect 20-minute Discovery channel time-killer episode.

  39. shahab shafiee
    shahab shafiee
    2 dagen geleden

    toooooooooooooo many ads 🤢

  40. Mati N
    Mati N
    2 dagen geleden

    "A portion" of the video was sponsored by LastPass?? First time I've ever heard that

  41. Christopher Grove
    Christopher Grove
    2 dagen geleden

    I used to use LastPass but they had a network breach once. They are not open source so that their program/apps are not audited for backdoors. I use the Open Source product Bitwarden. It is audited by the community and... is cheaper.

  42. scalor
    2 dagen geleden

    Does there exist a never repating tile pattern that is actually pleasing to look at? Like the idea of laser cutting some wood tiles and glueing them down interest me, but the patterns shown on this video would not work.

  43. James Ron
    James Ron
    2 dagen geleden

    My monkey brain understood like 0.000000001% but I love it!

  44. teka loves you
    teka loves you
    3 dagen geleden

    Music name 2:00??

  45. Bum pom
    Bum pom
    3 dagen geleden

    This video is impressively well made

  46. Yahya B
    Yahya B
    3 dagen geleden

    How do you define aperiodic tiling mathematically? And is there a condition(s) that the shapes which form an aperiodic pattern must satisfy?

  47. bubblegumray
    3 dagen geleden

    min 14:02 on each star is. a now german "in jedem stern ist auf den fünf enden oder straheln die gearade miteinader verbeunden sind im rechten winkel ein fünfeck zu sehn wie zuvor beschrieben. dass sechseck wie es bienenwaben haben ist nicht so gewollt es entwickelt sich durch kreise die aneinander gereiht werden wie eine kugel das größte volumen bei der kleinsten oberfläche hat so ergänzen sich körper des selben umfanges am besten im sechseck. ist ein gesetz der thermodynaik dass mir grad nicht einfällt, aber so ist es.

  48. heemin lee
    heemin lee
    3 dagen geleden

    Where can we buy thoses puzzles?

  49. Groza
    3 dagen geleden

    Didnt understand 3/4 of what he said but ok.

  50. [content deleted]
    [content deleted]
    3 dagen geleden

    I've never even heard of this but I'm extremely interested

    3 dagen geleden


    4 dagen geleden

    I mean, do you like weed?

  53. Mensa X
    Mensa X
    4 dagen geleden

    If we had the chance to learn topics like we see in these videos in school, I would of payed a lot more attention

  54. Owen Keeling
    Owen Keeling
    4 dagen geleden

    why did i smoke weed before this

  55. Me.
    4 dagen geleden

    Pffft those are hexagons

  56. Avatar X
    Avatar X
    4 dagen geleden


  57. Dieseluk2k
    4 dagen geleden

    if it never repeats then it isn't a pattern...

  58. Juan Miguel Verzosa
    Juan Miguel Verzosa
    4 dagen geleden

    hexagon are the bestagon

  59. Different 1
    Different 1
    4 dagen geleden

    could you make a 3D Aperiodic puzzle of a pyramid?

  60. David Shakespeare
    David Shakespeare
    4 dagen geleden

    Watch pentagon is the best a gone

  61. Calvin Weber
    Calvin Weber
    4 dagen geleden

    We were always wondering what the 4th dimension looked like, well here's the 5th

  62. Zoltán Papp
    Zoltán Papp
    5 dagen geleden


  63. The Funny TV Man of the Night
    The Funny TV Man of the Night
    5 dagen geleden

    I went to Prog and Pink Floyd wasn’t there and neither were any talking goats 0/10

  64. Statue Of Liberty
    Statue Of Liberty
    5 dagen geleden

    watch this before bed because its satisfying

  65. Amy Turner
    Amy Turner
    5 dagen geleden

    I kind of hate all of this.

  66. 60FPS
    5 dagen geleden

    outside topic. i just realised weaponry has to give up alot of fault to the inverse square law some how.. packing factor, firing ammunition, and physics of projectiles all play together.. perfect pacing factor would be rectangular shells, ofcourse then it would fire and fly less efficiently because charges get most efficientcy from being circular.. whatever powder or charge doesnt burn evenly in rectangular chambers and a rectangular munition would be awful to use precisely

  67. Nameless Dread
    Nameless Dread
    5 dagen geleden

    I want to see someone make this pattern in Minecraft.

  68. Lakers4Life
    6 dagen geleden

    Can this pattern be used for encryption

  69. Heated Turtle
    Heated Turtle
    6 dagen geleden

    Confusing ass title

  70. KOMO
    6 dagen geleden

    Is it even a pattern then?

  71. Tamim Azizadah
    Tamim Azizadah
    6 dagen geleden

    Mind. Blown.

  72. Jack Bruton
    Jack Bruton
    6 dagen geleden

    12:18 what if one shapes was different and the person to find it would get something.

  73. Douglas Collins
    Douglas Collins
    6 dagen geleden

    Could the tiling be used in encryption?

  74. jonki leshi
    jonki leshi
    6 dagen geleden

    The luxuriant roast acly unpack because twilight cumulatively drum into a handsomely novel. automatic, rotten christmas

  75. Kyra _
    Kyra _
    6 dagen geleden

    it does repeat

  76. 1 1
    1 1
    6 dagen geleden

    This video is an example of people who have waaaaay too much time on their hands.

  77. Michel P. Vanwelkenhuyzen
    Michel P. Vanwelkenhuyzen
    6 dagen geleden

    Fascinating ! Even for a complete non-matematician as me...

  78. Alix
    6 dagen geleden

    imagine having ocd watching this

  79. Jáchym Hanzl
    Jáchym Hanzl
    6 dagen geleden

    I live in Czech

  80. Joseph Udoudo
    Joseph Udoudo
    6 dagen geleden

    Me just realizing that he could have chose any number for the atomic number of Veritasium but he chose 42(0): Nice

  81. Darren vermeer
    Darren vermeer
    6 dagen geleden

    Does anyone know where to buy one of those icosahedrons he has at 17:17

  82. 영하한
    6 dagen geleden

    The three fan antenatally brush because archaeology strangely bore beyond a watery school. true, pricey truck

  83. professorquack supertrack
    professorquack supertrack
    6 dagen geleden

    it's 4am somewhere

  84. Embodied Conducting
    Embodied Conducting
    7 dagen geleden

    As below, so above. Look at the International Institute for Conductors logo. It is a representation of a conductor standing in an icosahedron, one of the platonic solids. According to Rudolf Laban the architecture of our personal space reflects Keplr's vision of planetary space. Cool!

  85. Niko
    7 dagen geleden

    oh, please tell me this video is in a golden aspect ratio. i have been dying to know!

  86. Stabvest
    7 dagen geleden

    It's not a pattern if it doesn't repeat

  87. DonutRBLX
    7 dagen geleden

    Robert burger

  88. J H
    J H
    7 dagen geleden

    Math is amazing...I'm too stupid to understand :(

  89. Zxayle
    7 dagen geleden

    I understand.

  90. Lewis Filby
    Lewis Filby
    7 dagen geleden

    I knew math would be important - I just chose not to pay attention. now I feel like I missed some magical universal language of numbers that puts me below other people

  91. Divers Chose
    Divers Chose
    7 dagen geleden

    In 2007, the physicists Peter J. Lu and Paul J. Steinhardt suggested that GIRIH tilings possess properties consistent with self-similar fractal quasicrystalline tilings such as Penrose tilings, predating them by five centuries.

  92. Pola & Tiger
    Pola & Tiger
    7 dagen geleden

    We are right in it!

  93. Okke Warner
    Okke Warner
    7 dagen geleden

    Haha, we wrote a philosophy exam about it...

  94. Lester
    7 dagen geleden

    Please tell me I’m not the only one who sees this on LSD

  95. Miley
    7 dagen geleden

    tesselation is epic.

  96. KDawg
    7 dagen geleden

    Now bend space to force the pattern to tile periodically, does the bent space have a pattern?

  97. Plazma XII
    Plazma XII
    7 dagen geleden

    I wish I was your level of smart

  98. Gondamar
    7 dagen geleden

    wait this guy went to prague in october 2020- description: “prague scenes filmed in 2012” ...wait this guy started this EIGHT YEARS ago???

  99. Lego Wisdom Maker Man
    Lego Wisdom Maker Man
    7 dagen geleden

    The thumbnail messed up my vision for 10 seconds. Bruhhhhhhhh

  100. Camilo Sanchez
    Camilo Sanchez
    7 dagen geleden

    Hexagons are the bestagons dude